Calotropis is a shrub or tree with lavender flowers and cork-like bark. The wood yields a fibrous substance that is used for rope, fishing line and thread.
It also has tannins, latex, rubber and a dye that are used in industrial practices.
Calotropis procera is a woody perennial that carries white or lavender flowers. The branches are twisting and cork-like in texture. The plant has ash colored bark covered with white fuzz. The flowers grow at the tops of apical stems and produce fruits. The fruit of Calotropis procera is oval and curved at the ends of the pods.
The fruit is also thick and, when opened, it is the source of thick fibers that have been made into rope and used in a multitude of ways. Ayurvedic medicine is a traditional Indian practice of healing. The Indian Journal of Pharmacology has produced a study on the effectiveness of extracted latex from Calotropis upon fungal infections caused by Candida. These infections usually lead to morbidity and are common in India so the promise of properties in Calotropis procera is welcome news.
Mudar root bark is the common form of Calotropis procera that you will find in India. It is made by drying the root and then removing the cork bark. Mudar root is also used for diarrhea and dysentery. Calotropis procera grows as a weed in many areas of India, but it is also purposefully planted. Calotropis procera improves soils nutrients and improves moisture binding, an important property in some of the more arid croplands of India. The plant is tolerant of dry and salty conditions and can easily be established in over cultivated areas to help improve the soil conditions and reinvigorate the land.
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Appearance of Calotropis Procera Calotropis procera is a woody perennial that carries white or lavender flowers.Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae that is native to North Africatropical AfricaWestern AsiaSouth Asiaand Indochina. The green fruits contain a toxic milky sap that is extremely bitter and turns into a gluey coating which is resistant to soap.
Common names for the plant include Apple of Sodom Sodom applestabragh [ citation needed ]king's crown rubber bush and rubber tree. Some biblical commentators believe that the Sodom apple may have been the poisonous gourd or poison-tasting gourd that led to "death in the pot" in the Second Book of Kings 2 Kings — In this story, a well-meaning servant of the prophet Elisha gathers herbs and a large quantity of the unknown gourds, and casts them into the pot.
After the outcry from the band of prophets, Elisha, instructs them to cast flour into the stew pot, and they are saved. The fibre of the Sodom apple may have been used for the linen of the high priests. The fruit is described by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus, who saw it growing near what he calls Sodom, near the Dead Sea: " Sodom apple is listed in the Mishnah and Talmud.
The fibers attached to the seeds may have been used as wicks. However the Mishnah forbids this for the Sabbath:  "It may not be lighted with cedar-bast, nor with uncombed flax, nor with floss-silk, nor with willow fiber, nor with nettle fiber. In his Biblical Researches in PalestineAmerican biblical scholar Edward Robinson describes it as the fruit of the Asclepias gigantea vel proceraa tree 10—15 feet high, with a grayish cork-like bark called ' osher by the Arabs.
He says the fruit resembled "a large, smooth apple or orange, hanging in clusters of three or four. It is indeed filled chiefly with air, which gives it the round form; while in the center a small slender pod runs through it which contains a small quantity of fine silk, which the Arabs collect and twist into matches for their guns.
The plant is known to occur throughout the tropical belt and is also common in the West Indies e. Jamaicawhere the locals know it as "pillow cotton". When the ripe "apples" burst, the fibrous contents are ejected along with the seeds. The former are collected by the Jamaicans and used for filling pillows. The milky sap contains a complex mix of chemicals, some of which are steroidal heart poisons known as "cardiac aglycones ".
These belong to the same chemical family as similar ones found in foxgloves Digitalis purpurea. The plant contains steroidal components that are the cause of its toxicity.
Information On Calotropis Procera
In the case of the Calotropis glycosides, their names are calotropincalotoxincalactinuscharidin and voruscharin. John Milton alludes to this plant in his epic poem, Paradise Lostwhile describing the fruit that Satan and his cohorts eat after having tempted Adam and Eve to eat an apple from the Tree of the knowledge of good and evil : [ citation needed ].
The Frutage fair to sight, like that which grew Neer that bituminous Lake where Sodom flam'd; This more delusive, not the touch, but taste Deceav'd; they fondly thinking to allay Thir appetite with gust, instead of Fruit Chewd bitter Ashes, which th' offended taste With spattering noise rejected: oft they assayd Hunger and thirst constraining From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of plant.
For other uses, see Apple of Sodom disambiguation. Aiton W. Retrieved Retrieved 3 September Cogan and Tadmore, II Kingsp. Taxon identifiers. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles with 'species' microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from January All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from January Commons category link from Wikidata Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from The American Cyclopaedia with a Wikisource reference Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms Taxonbars with 25—29 taxon IDs.To browse Academia.
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Log In Sign Up. Calotropis Procera Asclepiadaceae : A Review. Sunita Verma. It is a erect, soft wooded, evergreen perennial shrub. All the parts root, stem, leaf and flowers of C. The present paper is an attempt to provide a detailed botanical description, classification, pharmacological study of the plant.
It is also used against malaria and skin infection Sameer, The The nature has provided plant wealth for all living milky latex and flowers were considered to improve creature, which possess medicinal virtues [Bhatti, et al. The ]. Medicinal plants are an important source of drugs latex is also used as an abortifacient, spasmogenic and in traditional system of medicine.
Medicinal plants have carminative properties, antidysentric, antisyphilitic, been used since prehistoric period for the cure of various antirheumatic, antifungal, diaphoretic and for the diseases. Since these are in common use by the local treatment of leprosy, bronchial asthma and skin affiction. Its flowers indigenous plants as medicines since ages because this possess digestive and tonic properties.
On the contrary, knowledge transfers from generation to generation and the powdered root bark has been reported to give relief is based on life long experiences. Besides, the villages in diarrhoea and dysentery. The root of the plant is used are far away from cities and mostly lack proper health as a carminative in the treatment of dyspepsia. The root facilities Shinwari and Khan, Calotropis procera belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae and it is a II.
This plant is popularly known because it produces large quantity of latex. All the parts, viz, root, Calotropis Procera is drought-resistant plant and it stem, leaf and flowers of C.
It quickly in indigenous system of medicine Mukherjee, et al. It has a preference for and is often dominant in areas of The latex of Calotropis procera is easily available and is abandoned cultivation especially sandy soils in areas of used in medicine for treatment of many diseases. It is low rainfall, assumed to be an indicator of over- used as wound healing agent, anti-diarrheas, anti cultivation.
The effect of an ethanolic extract of the roots of 2. Taxonomic Classification Calotropis procera has been studied in albino rats to explore its antifertility and hormonal activities. No antiestrogenic activity was detected Saxena Division : Magnoliophyta and Saxena, The methanolic extract was found to inhibit 3. Bark reactive substance and superoxide dismutase were is soft and corky. Branches stout, terete with fine found to be regulated Ramos, Leaves sub-sessile, opposite, decussate, broadly ovate- Antimicrobial Activity oblong, elliptic or obovate, acute, thick, glaucous, green, covered with fine cottony pubescent hair on young but Chloroforms extract of C.
Flowers in umbellate- better antimicrobial activity. On the other hand, the cymes and tomentose on young, Calyx glabrous, ovate extracts obtained C. Corolla glabrous, lobes erect, ovate, acute, evaluated for their possible in vitro antibacterial coronal scaleslatterly compressed and equally of activities based on paper disc method Bhaskar, Follicles are sub- globose or ellipsoid or ovoid.
Seeds broadly ovate, acute, Anti-Inflammatory flattened, minutely tomentose, brown coloured and silky coma is 3. The milky white latex obtained from the plant exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity in various animal models that is comparable to standard anti-inflammatory drug Sangraula, Medicinal plants are used from the ancient time as the major sources of drugs.
The fact is that we can obtain many of the presently available drugs, either directly in the extract form or in the modified synthetic form.
Naturally, plants have ability to synthesize products benificial for us namly as phytoconstituents that are used to perfom biological functions, which also protect us against predators like virus fungi and other microorganisms.
The phyto-constituents obtained from the natural products are one of the most successful strategies for the discovery of new drugs. Various research are emphasised on scientific evaluation of herbal drugs which obtained from plant for the treatment of various ailments. Calotropis procera is small, erect shrub, which is used in several herbal and empirical medicines to cure simple and deadly diseases and disorders. This shrub is known to possess wide range of pharmacological activity.
Calotropis procera is also reported widely in various folklore preperations and ethnomedicines. This review is a profoundattempt to stack the information concerning pharmacognostical, phytochemical, pharmacological features of Calotropis procera shrubs. Sharma, R. Kharb and R.
Pharmacognostical aspects of Calotropis procera Ait. Pharma Bio Sci. Ahmed, A. Rana and V. Calotropis species Ascelpediaceae : A Comprehensive review. Weeds of the wet-dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT. University of Puerto Rico, PR Shinde, R. Ghatge, and S. Comparative studies on the growth and development of sandalwood tree in association with different hosts. Indian J. Verma, G. Satsangi and J. Ethno-medicinal profile of different plant parts of Calotropis procera Ait.
Saber, G. Maharan and M. Sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes of Calotropis procera. Tiwari, M. Masood, S. Rathore and P. Study of anthocyanins from the flowers of some medicinal plants. Vijnana Parishad Anusandhan Patrika. Carruthers, D. Griffiths, V. Home and L. Hydrocarbons from Calotropis procera in northern Australia. Shukla and C. Properties and partial purification of bacteriolytic enzyme from the latex of Calotropis procera Madar.To browse Academia.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Papers People. Identification of Calotropis procera L. Save to Library. Ali S. Al- Sarar. Pregnancy interceptive activity of the roots of Calotropis gigantea Linn. Antinociceptive activity of latex in mice.
This work evaluated the antinociceptive effect of proteins from the Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae latex using three different experimental models of nociception in mice. The latex protein fraction administered intraperitoneally in The latex protein fraction administered intraperitoneally in male mice at the doses of Inhibitions of the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions were observed at the doses of Latex protein at the doses of 25 In the hot plate test, an increase of the reaction time was observed only at 60 min after the treatment with latex at the doses of 25 It was concluded that the protein fraction derived from the whole latex of Calotropis procera possesses antinociceptive activity, which is independent of the opioid system.
Calotropis procera latex-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia? The inhibitory effect of bradyzide and morphine on oedema formation and hyperalgesic response was compared with that of cyproheptadine CPHa potent inhibitor of DL-induced oedema formation. The antihyperalgesic effect of both the drugs was more pronounced than that of CPH. Both bradyzide and morphine markedly inhibited the grooming behaviour and the effect of morphine could be reversed by pretreatment with naloxone.
The milky white latex of the plant Calotropis procera induces inflammatory response upon accidental exposure and on local administration that could be effectively ameliorated by antihistaminic and standard anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-oedematogenic and analgesic effect of the bradykinin antagonist, bradyzide BDZ and the opioidergic analgesic, morphine Mor against inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by the dried latex DL of C.
An aqueous solution of DL 0.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Gaurav Punia. Global J Res. The ethno-botanical pharmacology is as old as man himself.
Herbal medicines exhibit a remarkable therapeutic diversity. Arka is a plant which has been used in several traditional medicines to treat a variety of diseases. Both have almost similar properties but C. In Ayurvedic texts also by the name of Arka, Acharyas mentioned Rakta Arka Calotropis procera because of having more medicinal properties than C. This plant has been known to possess analgesic, antitumor, antihelmintic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, oestrogenic, antinociceptive, and antimalarial activity.
This is a rare shrub. Ayurveda is known since Vedic period. In the vedic literature Arka leaves were used in the C. There are much larger and coarse plant than C.
Calotropis gigantea L. Dryand nd C. The root of C. Calotropis is a genus of Pushya Nakshatra and carved into the form of plants that produce milky sap hence also Ganapati or Ganesh in some auspicious commonly called milkweed. The latex of muhurta. Hindus believe that those who Calotropis procera is said to have a mercury- worship this idol of Ganesh enjoy the presence like effects on the human body, and is of Mahadevi Laxmi and Lord Shiva.
Most sometimes referred to as vegetable mercury and recently C.
Cattle antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Leaves often stay away from both the plant C. Root bark of C. Although both a substitute of ipecacuanha. It is a poisonous varieties of Arka have almost similar properties plant; calotropin, a compound in the latex, is yet C. All synonyms of Sun belong to Arka, because it has tikshnata like that of Sun. Volume 2, Issue 5 May — Sources of Arka temples for its sanctity.
Botanical Description: Calotropis gigantea red variety — larger red flowers — Chief source of Raktaarka in S.
Calotropis procera Rakta Arka is a soft- India Bodhi Nighantu, wooded, evergreen, perennial shrub grows up to height of 3—6 m. It has one or a few stems, Shwetaarka — mainly has only one source few branches, and relatively few leaves, mostly Calotropis gigantea White variety — larger concentrated near the growing tips.
The bark is White flowers — Chief source of Shwetaarka corky, furrowed, and light grey. A copious all over the country. Bodhi Nighantu, Giant milkweed has a very deep, stout Most of the Nighantus Ayurvedic books of taproot with few or no near-surface lateral medicinal plants have mentioned same roots.
Giant milkweed roots reach up to depths properties of both Arka Sharma Ramprasad, of 1. Dalhana in commentary Of Susruta Sharma B. The opposite leaves are Samhita mentioned that by Arka we should take oblong-obovate to nearly orbicular, short- Rakta Arka.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The constituents and pharmacological properties of Calotropis procera - An Overview.
Ali E Al-Snafi. Vol 5 Issue 3 ABSTRACT Calotropis procera contained many biological active chemical groups including, cardenolides, steroids, tannins, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. It exerted many pharmacological effects such as antimicrobial, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, anticancer, anti-angiogenic, immunological, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, hypolipidemic, gastroprotective, hepatic protective, renal protective, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, enhancement of wound healing, antifertility and smooth muscle relaxant effect.
The present review will highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Calotropis procera. Key words: Calotropis procerapharmacology, constituents. Medicinal plants had been used by all wallichii Wight, Madorius procerus Aiton Kuntze, cultures throughout history.
The major pharmaceutical companies are currently conducting extensive research on Common names plant materials to introduced new drugs in the medical Arabic: dead sea plant, debaj, usher, oshar, practice .
Calotropis procera contained many kisher; English: calotrope, calotropis, dead Sea fruit, biological active chemical groups including, cardenolides, desert wick, giant milkweed, swallow-wort, mudar fibre, steroids, tannins, glycosides, phenols, terpenoids, sugars, rubber bush, rubber tree, sodom apple; French: pomme de flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. The present ipekag and Urdu: madar, aak .
Distribution Parts used Calotropis procera is a plant widely distributed The latex, fresh or dried leaves, the roots and root in Asia, Africa, and America .
It is native to West bark, and the flowers were used medicinally . The soluble extractive and 6. Chemical constituents The preliminary phytochemical screening of leaf Description powder of Calotropis procera showed that the leaves Calotropis procera is a soft-wooded, evergreen, contained cardenolides, steroids, tannins, glycosides, perennial shrub.
It has one or a few stems, few branches, phenols, terpenoids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and and relatively few leaves, mostly concentrated near the saponins [75,]. The bark is corky, furrowed, and light gray. A The leaves also contained bitter compound copious white sap flows whenever stems or leaves are cut. Procesterol, a new steroidal no near-surface lateral roots.