Most often it is generated as a human readable version of its sister BAM format, which stores the same data in a compressed, indexed, binary form. Currently, most SAM format data is output from aligners that read FASTQ files and assign the sequences to a position with respect to a known reference genome. In the future, SAM will also be used to archive unaligned sequence data generated directly from sequencing machines.
Refer to the specs to see a format description. The header section may contain information about the entire file and additional information for alignments. The alignments then associate themselves with specific header information. Not all alignments contain The rest of the alignment fields may be set to default values if the information is unknown. Hopefully this section will help clarify it. The sequence being aligned to a reference may have additional bases that are not in the reference or may be missing bases that are in the reference.
The POS indicates that the read aligns starting at position 5 on the reference. The next base in the read does not exist in the reference.
Then 3 bases align with the reference. The next reference base does not exist in the read sequence, then 5 more bases align with the reference. Note that at position 14, the base in the read is different than the reference, but it still counts as an M since it aligns to that position. QUAL stands for query quality. It is an indicator for how accurate each base in the query sequence SEQ is. Quality is calculated based on the probability that a base is wrong, p, using the following formula:.
This quality is called the Phred Quality Score. Since a human readable format is desired for SAM, 33 is added to the calculated quality in order to make it a printable character ranging from! There are a set of predefined tags that are general used in Alignments. They are documented in the SAM Specification. Predefined tags have been specified for storing information about the read or alignment. Examples of things stored in predefined tags:. A user can also use any additional tags to store any information they want.
It also contains supplemental information for alignment records like information about the reference sequences, the processing that was used to generate the various reads in the file, and the programs that have been used to process the different reads.
The alignment records may then point to this supplemental information identifying which ones the specific alignment is associated with. Rather than every alignment containing information about the reference sequence, this information is put in the header, and the alignment "points" to the appropriate reference sequence in the header via the RNAME field.
The header contains generic information about this reference like its length. Jump to: navigationsearch. Personal tools Log in Request account. Navigation Main page Recent changes Random page Help.A dedicated CRS Certified Registration Specialist is assigned to physically process, maintain and oversee the registrations and certifications in order to ensure compliant and accurate filings. For organizations with active registrations at the time regulation changes go into effect, the SAM Registration itself must be immediately updated and resubmitted in order to remain compliant.
SAM Registrants receive a large amount of misleading emails and phone calls from unethical organizations trying to make money from the multiple processes involved that are already confusing and quite complicated.
Therefore it is quite easy to skip over the few important annual emails that are received calling for action or regarding an actual award from Contracting Officers or Prime Vendors. By having a dedicated CRS, your filings will be accurately maintained to remain compliant, you will have Unlimited Support for the term of your registration including guidance on how to take advantage of the Regulations that help Small Businesses actually win contracts by understanding and following the specific rules that were created to ensure such.
This avoids most all negative issues than can and do arise from inaccurate or expired registrations which have a direct effect on award considerations and the processing of payments. If you wish to apply for a Federal Grant or conduct business with the U.
Federal Government, you must start here.
The System for Award Management SAM is a Federal payment tracking database of approved organizations that tracks where money is going to and for what. Once the SAM Registration is approved and active, organizations must then position themselves in the proper areas and in a format that is conducive to how Contracting Officers actually make decisions and award contracts. Most importantly is having proper code assignments, certifications and detailed information readily available and easily verifiable across all platforms.
In order to truly be successful, Contracting Officers must be able to easily determine whether or not a vendor can fulfill a specific job or request whether it is for awarding a Direct No-Bid Contract or deciding between bidders on a posted solicitation. As Small Businesses are the backbone of the U. Depending on the industry, business size, location, Set-Aside status and a few other factors; Small Businesses can be hugely successful offering their goods and services directly to the Federal Government.
Prime Vendors on larger contracts must also adhere to many of the same regulations to ensure Small Businesses have relatively equal rights equivalent to large corporations in terms of a weighted dollar average by to fulfill contracts. Federal Acquisition Regulation Section 13 refers to the Simplified Acquisition Procedures that were primarily created for Small Businesses with the sole purpose of simplifying the bidding and awarding process for both the vendor and the Contracting Officer.
There are specific filings, tools and profiles that a Small Business should have in place if they wish to proactively pursue and win new government contracts. Also by having a "Direct Vendor Seal" that links directly to your current SAM Registration shows Contracting Officers that all your legal filings are properly in order and you have immediate assistance regarding all matters of Government Contracting.
There are many marketing organizations that assist in this process and try to sell you many unnecessary services that are not needed and do not actually work they way they say. There are no other organizations who specifically specialize in this area which includes the protection of and assistance for Small Businesses to help ensure they are successful. For the more complicated registrations where further assistance is needed, United States Business Registration is the only place to turn to for ethical professional assistance.
We are the oldest and largest organization of it's kind and have maintained a Grade "A" with the Better Business Bureau since our inception almost 10 years ago.Check out the movies and shows we're excited about this month, including " Star Trek: Discovery " and After We Collided. See the full list. An alpha New York City male is magically transformed into a beautiful girl, falls in love, and learns what it means to be a woman. Really quite enjoyed the film.
Lead actress was good and played part well. Had us guessing until the end, which you need to watch. Looking for some great streaming picks? Check out some of the IMDb editors' favorites movies and shows to round out your Watchlist. Visit our What to Watch page. Sign In. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites.
Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Director: Nicholas Brooks. Added to Watchlist. Titles needed for donation to Stonewall Archives.
Need to watch. Share this Rating Title: Sam 5.It can be used to authenticate local and remote users. SAM uses cryptographic measures to prevent unauthenticated users accessing the system. It can be enabled by running the syskey program. Since a hash function is one-way, this provides some measure of security for the storage of the passwords. In the case of online attacks, it is not possible to simply copy the SAM file to another location.
The SAM file cannot be moved or copied while Windows is running, since the Windows kernel obtains and keeps an exclusive filesystem lock on the SAM file, and will not release that lock until the operating system has shut down or a " Blue Screen of Death " exception has been thrown.
However, the in-memory copy of the contents of the SAM can be dumped using various techniques including pwdumpmaking the password hashes available for offline brute-force attack. Most versions of Windows can be configured to disable the creation and storage of valid LM hashes when the user changes their password.
Windows Vista and later versions of Windows disable LM hash by default. Note: enabling this setting does not immediately clear the LM hash values from the SAM, but rather enables an additional check during password change operations that will instead store a "dummy" value in the location in the SAM database where the LM hash is otherwise stored.
This dummy value has no relationship to the user's password - it is the same value used for all user accounts. In Windows NT 3. If the SAM file is deleted from the hard drive e. This flaw was corrected with Windows XP, which shows an error message and shuts down the computer.
This software has both a highly pragmatic and beneficial use as a password clearing or account recovering utility for individuals who have lost or forgotten their Windows account passwords, as well as a possible use as a malicious software security bypassing utility.
Essentially granting a user with enough ability, experience, and familiarity with both the cracking utility software and the security routines of the Windows NT kernel as well as offline and immediate local access to the target computer the capability to entirely bypass or remove the Windows account passwords from a potential target computer. MSDart is not freely available to end-users, however.
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDLversion 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message.It provides shorthand syntax to express functions, APIs, databases, and event source mappings.
With just a few lines per resource, you can define the application you want and model it using YAML. Mac or Linux. See installation instructions. Use SAM to organize related components, share configuration such as memory and timeouts between resources, and deploy all related resources together as a single, versioned entity. It provides a Lambda-like execution environment locally and helps you catch issues upfront.
The Boston Beer Company, Inc. (SAM)
You can also define resources using CloudFormation in your SAM template and use the full suite of resources, intrinsic functions, and other template features that are available in AWS CloudFormation. Deploy your infrastructure as config to leverage best practices such as code reviews. Enhance the SAM Specification.
Getting Started with SAM. Single Deployment Configuration. Integration with Development Tools. Local Testing and Debugging. Built-In Best Practices. Want to dive into the docs or watch a SAM tutorial?
Have more questions?See photos of celebrities like Scarlett Johansson and Leonardo DiCaprio before they hit the big-time, and revisit their earliest onscreen roles. See the full gallery. Thirty years in the life of a working-class British family, during times of great change. I remember this series very fondly and just have one comment to make. Why on earth do channels like Drama and Yesterday seem to have forgotten it exists?
Actually I will make another comment. Whatever happened to young Kevin Moreton Sam in series 1?. Looking for some great streaming picks? Check out some of the IMDb editors' favorites movies and shows to round out your Watchlist. Visit our What to Watch page. Sign In.
Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends. Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Episode List. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews.Software asset management SAM is a business practice that involves managing and optimizing the purchase, deployment, maintenance, utilization, and disposal of software applications within an organization.Sam Vishal \u0026 Sivaangi Live Part 2
SAM technologies track license expiration, thus allowing the company to function ethically and within software compliance regulations. This can be important for both eliminating legal costs associated with license agreement violations and as part of a company's reputation management strategy. Both are important forms of risk management and are critical for large corporations' long-term business strategies. SAM is one facet of a broader business discipline known as IT asset managementwhich includes overseeing both software and hardware that comprise an organization's computers and network.
SAM can serve many different functions within organizations, depending on their software portfolios, IT infrastructures, resource availability, and business goals. For many organizations, the goal of implementing a SAM program is very tactical in nature, focused specifically on balancing the number of software licenses purchased with the number of actual licenses consumed or used. In addition to balancing the number of licenses purchased with the amount of consumption, an effective SAM program must also ensure that the usage of all installed software is in keeping with the terms and conditions of the specific vendor license agreement.
In doing so, organizations can minimize liabilities associated with software piracy in the event of an audit by a software vendor or a third party such as the Business Software Alliance BSA.
SAM, according to this interpretation, involves conducting detailed software inventories on an ongoing basis to determine the exact number of software licenses consumed, comparing this information with the number of licenses purchased, reviewing how the software is being used in respect to the terms and conditions and establishing controls to ensure that proper licensing practices are maintained on an ongoing basis.
This can be accomplished through a combination of IT processes, purchasing policies and procedures, and technology solutions such as software inventory tools. Counting installations is the most common means of measuring license consumption but some software is licensed by number of users, capital, processors or CPU Cores.
More broadly defined, the strategic goals of SAM often include but are not limited to the following:. The published standards are outlined below:. The implementation of SAM processes to be "accomplished in multiple staged increments or tiers. The current version was published in and is a revision to the original Software ID Tag standard.
Using SCCM Metering Rules to monitor software usage across a small estate or a small number of applications is relatively easy and reliable given the total number of unique executables. Turning on Metering Rules for every packaged application and every executable in a large estate quickly makes the volume of data generated unmanageable and expensive to maintain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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